Genetic Engineering: References

Baba, M., Nishimura, O., Kanzaki, N., Okamoto, M., Sawada, H., Iizawa, Y., . . . Fujino, M. (1999). A small-molecule, nonpeptide CCR5 antagonist with highly potent and selective anti-HIV-1 activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,96(10), 5698-5703. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.10.5698

Baltimore, D., Berg, P., Botchan, M., Carroll, D., Charo, R. A., Church, G., . . . Yamamoto, K. R. (2015). A prudent path forward for genomic engineering and germline gene modification. Science,348(6230), 36-38. doi:10.1126/science.aab1028

Bennett, G. (2013). H5N1 and the Politics of Truth. Hastings Center Report,43(2), 35-37. doi:10.1002/hast.157

Botting, E. H. (2018, December 06). A Chinese scientist says he edited babies’ genes. What are the rights of the genetically modified child? Retrieved December 8, 2018, from

Chan, S., Donovan, P. J., Douglas, T., Gyngell, C., Harris, J., Lovell-Badge, R., . . . Regenberg, A. (2015). Genome Editing Technologies and Human Germline Genetic Modification: The Hinxton Group Consensus Statement. The American Journal of Bioethics,15(12), 42-47. doi:10.1080/15265161.2015.1103814

Chan, S. (2015, November 04). The ethics of changing genes in the embryo. Retrieved December 6, 2018, from

Cho, S. W., Kim, S., Kim, Y., Kweon, J., Kim, H. S., Bae, S., & Kim, J. (2013). Analysis of off-target effects of CRISPR/Cas-derived RNA-guided endonucleases and nickases. Genome Research,24(1), 132-141. doi:10.1101/gr.162339.113

Elsa, M., Ilaria, S., & Oliver, H. (2018). Preventing HIV transmission through blockade of CCR5: Rationale, progress and perspectives. Swiss Medical Weekly,148(34). doi:10.4414/smw.2018.14580

Evans, N. G. (2012). Great expectations—ethics, avian flu and the value of progress. Journal of Medical Ethics,39(4), 209-213. doi:10.1136/medethics-2012-100712

Fouchier, R. A., Garcia-Sastre, A., & Kawaoka, Y. (2012). The Pause on Avian H5N1 Influenza Virus Transmission Research Should Be Ended. MBio,3(5), 1-1. doi:10.1128/mbio.00358-12

Fu, Y., Foden, J. A., Khayter, C., Maeder, M. L., Reyon, D., Joung, J. K., & Sander, J. D. (2013). High-frequency off-target mutagenesis induced by CRISPR-Cas nucleases in human cells. Nature Biotechnology,31(9), 822-826. doi:10.1038/nbt.2623

Kim, D., Bae, S., Park, J., Kim, E., Kim, S., Yu, H. R., . . . Kim, J. (2015). Digenome-seq: Genome-wide profiling of CRISPR-Cas9 off-target effects in human cells. Nature Methods,12(3), 237-243. doi:10.1038/nmeth.3284

Kuehn, B. M. (2012). International Debate Erupts Over Research on Potentially Dangerous Bird Flu Strains. Jama,307(10). doi:10.1001/jama.2012.230

Lanphier, E., Urnov, F., Haecker, S. E., Werner, M., & Smolenski, J. (2015). Don’t edit the human germ line. Nature,519(7544), 410-411. doi:10.1038/519410a

Marchione, M. (2018, November 25). Chinese Scientist Says he made gene-edited twins using CRISP technology. Retrieved December 5, 2018, from

NIH. (2014, September). Dual Use Research of Concern – Office of Science Policy. Retrieved December 7, 2018, from

NIH. (2017, August 3). What are the ethical concerns about genome editing? Retrieved December 5, 2018, from

Resnik, D. B. (2013). H5N1 Avian Flu Research and the Ethics of Knowledge. Hastings Center Report,43(2), 22-33. doi:10.1002/hast.143

Roos, R. (2012, June 21). Fouchier study reveals changes enabling airborne spread of H5N1. Retrieved December 6, 2018, from

Stein, R. (2018, November 26). Chinese Scientist Says He’s First To Create Genetically Modified Babies Using CRISPR. Retrieved December 6, 2018, from

Zheng, S. (2018). The growing threat of Chinas HIV epidemic. The Lancet Public Health,3(7). doi:10.1016/s2468-2667(18)30098-7

Zimmer, C. (2018, December 01). Genetically Modified People Are Walking Among Us. Retrieved December 5, 2018, from